Daedalus, A MineSweeper Game Built w/ Qt

Daedalus

A MineSweeper Game built with Qt

中文版

Build & Run

  • Qt 5.7 or later
  • C++ 11
  • macOS Sierra (Build Target is currently macOS and if you want to run it on Windows or Linux, just modify the .pro file a little bit)

About Daedalus

Daedalus is a MineSweeper game. People have been playing MineSweeper for ages. Most people believe that Microsoft created it while actually it dates back to the 1960s. After years of evolution, the MineSweeper in Windows 10 App Store has got a completely new look, however its rules remain the same:

  • The game UI has a matrix of cells in it. The cells can be divided into two kinds: mine and not mine. If a cell is not a mine, its displaying content would be the number of its adjacent mines.
  • Left click turns a cell over
  • Right click flags or questions a cell
  • If a mine-cell gets turned over, the player loses.
  • If the player has turned all the cells that are not mines, the player wins.

Implementing Daedalus

Mine Laying, Cell Content Calculating, Turning Over, Recursive Turning Over

Here’s how I designed the Game Logic for Daedalus:

  • In most implementations of MineSweepers, players will never step on a cell on his first click. What Microsoft has done to implement this rule is easy. If the player steps on a mine on his first click, just lay the mines again and pretends the player didn’t step on it. What I did is, lay mines after the player clicks on a cell so that when the AI tries to lay mines it’ll avoid the cell that’s been clicked.
  • When the players clicks a blank cell, which means there’s no adjacent mine around it, the cells around the cell get automatically turned over. My solution to it is Turning Over and Recursive Turning Over

Algorithms

Storing Cells

2-dimensional array?

So how do I store my cells? I tried to use a 2 dimensional array in C++ as I always did in Swift like: [[Cells]], an array of arrays. Well there’s no such syntactic sugar in C++. When I want to write a function that returns a 2-dimensional array, I gotta do like this, a pointer of a pointer:

//Returns a pointer of a pointer of a pointer :-(
//This is so not elegant. It's vulgar.
Cell *** AI::initCellsFoo(int rowCount, int columnCount) {
    Cell ***cells = new Cell **[rowCount];
    for (int i = 0; i < rowCount; ++i) {
        cells[i] = new Cell *[columnCount];
        for (int j = 0; j < columnCount; ++j) {
            Cell *foo = new Cell(i, j);
            cells[i][j] = foo;
        }
    }
    return cells;
}

The not-elegant implementation above brought me, a C++ Newbie, so many problems so I used QList of Qt to construct the 2D array instead:

#define CellMatrix QList<QList<Cell *> *>
CellMatrix *AI::initCells(int rowCount, int columnCount) {
  CellMatrix *cells = new CellMatrix;
  for (int i=0; i < rowCount+2; ++i) {
    cells->append((new FlatList));
    for (int j=0; j<columnCount+2; ++j) {
      Cell *foo = new Cell(i, j);
      cells->at(i)->append(foo);
    }
  }
  return cells;
}

Now it gets better.

Representing Relationships among Cells

I tried using only coordinates to reference a Cell and its adjacent Cells at the beginning. For example, this Cell at (3, 5) got turned over, and the AI needs to see the status of its adjacent Cells because they may need to be recursively turned over. So the AI did some calculations on the coordinates and it now knows where the other Cells are at: (2, 4), (2, 5), (2, 6), (3, 4), (3, 6), (4, 4), (4, 5), (4, 6). This is way too complex. I mean, it’s just not easy for me to write the code because I get easily messed up with all the +1s and -1s, let alone if the clicked Cell is at places like (0, 0), BANG, our AI would want to get a Cell at (-1, -1) from the CellMatrix. That’s not good.

So I came up with referencing the adjacent cells around a Cell using 8 pointers. C++ likes pointers. (I hate it though). When constructing the matrix AI::sharedInstance().cells, I assign the pointers to the cells for good, by calculating the coordinates, which is inevitable. But I still got the problem when it comes to the cells that are at the edges — they still don’t have 8 adjacent cells after all. My first thought is that, just assign the pointers. Like if I do like this: cell->North = cells->at(-1)->at(-1), I won’t have any problem at all because it’ll just assign NULL to cell->North. But when I tested it, it’s not Okay. Because cells->at(-1)->at(-1) won’t return NULL at all. It crashes.

So we’re done with NULL. I came up with another idea that is, to add an extra layer of cells outside the player’s defined m * n matrix, like building fences around the 4 edges. Then when we are assigning pointers, we are not gonna encounter the problems above, because now every Cell we need to take care of has 8 adjacent cells.

(These green cells are the fences, the "useless" cells which I added to solve the problem. We can see that now every "usesful" Cell now has 8 adjacent cells.)

So this means AI:sharedInstance().cells now has a layer of "useless" cells that the UI should be displaying. In other words, when displaying the CellMatrix we need to iterate the 2D array without iterating the "useless" cells.

When we didn’t have the "useless" cells it’s easy. For a matrix of m * n, the iterating is like this in a for-loop:

for (int i=0; i<m; ++i) {
  for (int j=0; j<n; ++j) {
    //cells.at(i).at(j) is the cell at (i, j)
  }
}

Clearly after adding those "useless" cells, we won’t be able to do like that. When the player defined a matrix of m * n, we’ll actually return a matrix of (m+2) * (n+2). In order to ignore those "useless" cells, we do iterating like this;

for (int i=1; i<m+1; ++i) {
  for (int j=1; j<n+1; ++j) {
    //cells.at(i).at(j) is the cell at (i, j)
  }
}

Turning Over and Recursive Turning Over

Below is my Recursive Turning Over pseudo code:

//Rough Pseudo Code
void revealACell(Cell *cell) {
  if cell is not initialized (cell->content == -2)
    layMines()
  if cell is already revealed and its content != 0
    if the number of flagged cells = cell->content
      for cell in cell->cellsAround() {
        revealACell(cell)
      }
}

You can see it above that when a cell gets revealed, we calculate the number of flagged cells around it. If the number is equal to the cell‘s content, do recursive turning over on the adjacent cells.

I have a method called FlatList *cellsAround(). This method returns a list of a cell’s adjacent cells. Why would I do so? Didn’t the cell have 8 pointers pointed to the adjacent cells already? Yea it does. But some of the cells have "useless" cells as their adjacent cells. So I have this method to filter those "useless" cells.

//Iterate Pointers Around a Cell and save'em into a list
FlatList *Cell::cellsAround() {
  FlatList *foo = new FlatList;
  if (-2 == content) {
    return NULL;
  }
  
  //If a cell's content is -2, which means it's not initialized even after initialization, then this cell is useless and cannot be added to the list
  if (North->content != -2) foo->append(North);
  if (NorthWest->content != -2) foo->append(NorthWest);
  if (NorthEast->content != -2) foo->append(NorthEast);
  if (South->content != -2) foo->append(South);
  if (SouthWest->content != -2) foo->append(SouthWest);
  if (SouthEast->content != -2) foo->append(SouthEast);
  if (West->content != -2) foo->append(West);
  if (East->content != -2) foo->append(East);
  return foo;
}

Laying Mines

Random. That’s the essence of it.

User Interaction Handling

References

Pure Header Files:

HEADERS DESCRIPTION
HeaderWrapper.h include header files to make including in other files simpler
resourses.h macro defines of file paths of game resourses like sounds and pics

Model Classes:

CLASS DESCRIPTION
AI AI controls the logic of the game
Cell Cell is the model of the cells in the game
Preferences Preferences is the user’s preferences

Controller Classes:

CLASS DESCRIPTION
UserInteractionHandler Handles and filters users’ interactons with the interface and send them to the model AI.
SoundHandler Plays sound

View Classes:

CLASS DESCRIPTION
Cell Displays the UI of each cell in the game according to their content
GameField Displays a Grid of cells that allows users to interact with
AboutPage Displays the About Page. A simple one.
ADOBEOCRLabel Custom Label Class with special font of Adobe OCR A STD
DefeatedDialog Displays the Defeated Page
WinningDialog Displays the Winning Page
Preferences Displays the Settings page
StopWatch A stopwatch
MainWindow The whole window of the game

For the Cell Class

PROPERTIES DESCRIPTION
Coordinate coordinate A cell’s coordinate in the grid
int content 0 – 8 means the numbers of mines around the cell. -1 means it’s a mine itself and -2 means it hasn’t been initialized by the AI yet.
bool isMine Indicates if the cell is a mine
Status status Status is an enum type which has virgin, flagged, questioned, revealed
Cell *North, *NorthWest, *NorthEast, *East, *SouthEast, *South, *SouthWest, *West Pointers pointed to the 8 cells around a cell
INSTANCE METHODS DESCRIPTION
void setStatus(Status) sets its status
CLASS METHODS DESCRIPTION
Cell(int atRow, int atCol) The Constructor
SIGNALS DESCRIPTION
void clicked(Cell *, QMouseEvent *) Emitted when the user left_clicks a cell
void clicked_double(Cell *, QMouseEvent *) Emitted when the user double_clicks a cell
void statusChanged() Emitted when a cell’s status has chan
SLOTS DESCRIPTION
void refreshUI() Refreshes the cell’s UI on receiving the statusChanged()

For the AI Class:

PROPERTIES DESCRIPTION
CellMatrix *cells The 2-D matrix of cells in the game
FlatList *mines The 1-D Array of mines in the game
QString time The time the user has spent on a game
Board board The game board indicating rowCount and colCount of the matrix of cells in the game
UserInteractionHandler *_interactionHandler The User Interaction Handler
SoundHandler *_soundHandler The Sound Handler
INSTANCE METHODS DESCRIPTION
CellMatrix *initCells(int rowCount=12, int colCount=12) Generates a matrix of cells, rowCount and colCount being 12 by default
void layMines(Cell *clickedCell) Lay mines on cells except for the cell that the user clicked for the first time
void countNeighbourMines(CellMatrix *cells) Counts neighboring mines and set the cells’ content
void revealCell(Cell *clickedCell) Recursively reveals the clickedCell
void judge() Judges if the user has won the game
void bindCellsToInteractionHandler(Cell *, UserInteractionHandler *) Binding signals and slots
void bindInteractionHandlerToAI(UserInteractionHandler *, AI *) Binding signals and slots
void bindInteractionhandlerToSoundHandler(UserInteractionHandler *, SoundHandler *) Binding signals and slots
void bindAIToSoundHandler(AI *, SoundHandler *) Binding signals and slots
CLASS METHODS DESCRIPTION
AI() The Constructor
static AI &sharedInstance() Returns the reference of the AI Singleton
SIGNALS DESCRIPTION
void steppedOnAMine(Cell *) Emitted when the user has stepped on a mine
void gameInitialized() Emitted when the game has been initialized
void waitingForTheTime() Emitted when the AI needs the stop watch to tell it the time
void succeeded() Emitted when user has won t
void reloadGame() Emitted when the user has changed the preferences or clicked restart / new game
void newWindowPopped() Emitted when a new Window pops up above the main window
void topViewDismissed() Emitted when the main windows became the top window in the view hierachy
SLOTS DESCRIPTION
void leftClickACell(Cell *) Left clicks a cell on receiving left click interaction from the _userInteractionHandler
void rightClickACell(Cell *) Right clicks a cell on receiving right click interaction from the _userInteractionHandler
void pause() Pauses the game (the stopwatch) on receiving the SIGNAL newWindowPopped
void resume() Resumes the game (the stopwatch) on receiving the SIGNAL topViewDismissed
void receivedNewPreferences(Preferences *) Changes the preferences on receiving a Preference_Changed signal
void userClickedRestart() Restarts the game when the user clicks restart
void receivedTime(QString) Sets the time when received time from the stopwatch


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